Edges of Empire Biographical Dictionary
of Convict Women from beyond the British Isles
Edited by Lucy Frost and Colette McAlpine
Who would have thought that a slave in British Hondurus would end up as a female convict in Van Diemen’s Land? Or that two cousins, the oldest aged 12, would be transported from their native Mauritius all the way to New South Wales? And why was a French-born woman with the extravagant name Emme Felicite Gabrielle Chardonez Mallohomme sentenced at London’s Old Bailey to transportation for life?
Edges of Empire is a Biographical Dictionary offering accounts of many of these convicts among nearly 200 others who were tried or born outside the British Isles. All were transported to the Australian colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land between 1788 and 1853. Their life stories have been tracked from numerous sources around the world, sometimes in detail and sometimes with the merest trace of their existence. The contributors to the Biographical Dictionary are members of the Female Convicts Research Centre, based in Hobart, Tasmania, but with a membership worldwide. For more information go to: http://www.femaleconvicts.org.au.
In addition to the Biographical Dictionary, which includes all the women for whom information has become available, the more in-depth and comprehensive study, From the Edges of Empire: Convict Women from beyond the British Isles, is available in paperback from Convict Women’s Press Inc.
Margaret Shaw (1794?-?)
by Dianne Snowden
Margaret Shaw convict nurse, midwife and laundress, was born in the East Indies. Nothing is known of her circumstances in the East Indies, how she came to be born there or when she left. By 1840, she was living in London: on 14 September 1840, in the Central Criminal Court (popularly known as the Old Bailey), she pleaded guilty to a charge of larceny (stealing a coat valued at 10/-). Margaret proclaimed, ‘I was never convicted before’. A widow aged 46 with eight or nine children, she was transported to Van Diemen’s Land for 7 years. Her children did not accompany her and nothing is known of their lives once their mother had been transported.
Margaret was 5 feet 5 inches (165 cm) tall, ‘stout made’ with large hands, and she had a florid complexion, greying brown hair, dark brown eyes, a wide mouth and a round chin. She was proficient in reading and writing.
Margaret left England on the Rajah on 5 April 1841. During the voyage, she worked in the ship’s hospital as a nurse; the Surgeon noted that she was ‘very good’ in this role, which included plain cases of midwifery. When she arrived in Van Diemen’s Land, in July 1841, Margaret was sent to the hospital at the Cascades Female Factory as a nurse. She was still there in July 1843 when she appeared as a witness at the inquest of her shipmate, Mary Brown, who died at the Factory.
While she was serving her sentence, Margaret was well-behaved and obedient. She had no colonial offences and it seems that the only offence she committed was the one for which she was transported. She was granted a ticket of leave in October 1843.
In August 1844, Margaret was recommended by the Comptroller-General of Convicts to fulfil the vacancy of Infant Nurse in the Female School, Queen’s Orphan Schools, at New Town. This came with a salary of £18 per annum plus a personal ration. She had excellent references from John Hutchinson, Superintendent of the Cascades Female Factory, and Dr William Dermer, Assistant Colonial Surgeon. Hutchinson wrote:
Margaret Shaw the bearer of this Certificate was three years Nurse and Midwife in this Establishment and during that time was exceedingly well conducted, she discharged her duties very much to our Satisfaction and is in my opinion a most suitable person for the care of Children, especially in time of Sickness.
Dr Dermer concurred:
[Margaret Shaw] was nurse in the Hospital, Female House of Correction, for a period of three years, and gave me every satisfaction in the discharge of her duties, and I should consider her well fitted to look after children, or act as a Nurse in a Public Establishment.
Margaret remained in the position of Infant Nurse until November 1844, when she was appointed in charge of the laundry at the Orphan Schools. It was a responsible position and one which it appears Margaret performed capably. Her salary, with the addition of a personal ration, remained the same. This seems to have been the standard salary and allowance for convict workers at the Orphan Schools at that time.
On 14 September 1847, Margaret became free by servitude and was eligible for a certificate of freedom. The last conclusive record located for her was that which appeared in the Hobart Town Gazette on 7 September 1847, noting that her certificate of freedom was available for collection.
T. Cowley and D. Snowden, Patchwork Prisoners: The Rajah Quilt and the Women who made it (Hobart, Tasmania Research Tasmania, 2013)
© 2016 Convict Women's Press Inc.